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Bitter Chocolate Book Pdf 28

Tempering chocolate is a classic technique all pastry chefs and chocolatiers will be familiar with. If you want to make homemade chocolates that are as delicious as they are visually appealing, it is important you have a solid grasp of the process.

bitter chocolate book pdf 28

Tempering chocolate simply means melting the chocolate while controlling how its temperature rises and falls. This technique lets you use the chocolate the way you want to and get the perfect result for all your creations.

As such, tempering is essential for anyone who wants to make beautiful desserts and chocolates with a smooth, glossy, solid texture. It is important to follow every step in the process to get the results you want. Otherwise, chocolate can become brittle, dull, bumpy, flecked with white marks, and harder to turn out. Successful tempering is the key to successful chocolate making.

This classic technique is the easiest to do. It involves melting (chopped) chocolate in a bain-marie while stirring and regularly checking the temperature. However, be careful not to drop any water in the chocolate - just a few drops are enough to spoil the lot. To temper your chocolate this way, you will need the following:

It is totally possible to make these methods your own and adapt them to your preferences, utensils, likes and dislikes. You can combine seeding with bain-marie techniques by first melting three-quarters of the chocolate.

Tempering machines are very convenient for people who have to temper chocolate regularly, as they make it impossible to fail. In a tempering machine, couverture chocolate will automatically go through each temperature in the process, giving you perfect results without you having to do a thing.

Chocolate, and couverture chocolate in particular, is made up of fat. The aim of tempering is to help chocolate reach a series of different temperatures. When we do this, we separate out the various molecules that make up the chocolate, before reassembling them in perfect order to give the chocolate a glossy shine.

The FRAP activity of human plasma is mainly attributable to ascorbate, α-tocopherol, bilirubin and urate4. Given normal plasma levels of these substances5, an increase in urate concentration is most likely to account for the results of Serafini et al., because urate is present in plasma at much higher levels than those of other antioxidants, and chocolate is unlikely to contain much ascorbate. Although α-tocopherol may be present in chocolate, even a high intake of this vitamin can increase its concentration in plasma by only a few micromolar at most5.

The mechanism and consequences of increased plasma urate levels following consumption of chocolate would be interesting to investigate, but should not necessarily be regarded as beneficial. Hyperuricaemia has been associated with stroke, cardiovascular and renal morbidity, and gout5,6,7,8.

If you have a big-time sweet tooth, grabbing a grapefruit could help cut back on calories from late-night treats. "The interesting thing about grapefruit, and citrus fruits in general, is that they provide an intense, satisfying flavor that rarely gets chanced by sweets," Taub-Dix says. "A grapefruit or citrus fruit after dinner could keep you from reaching for a sweet dessert." Yeah, that's right: a 52-calorie grapefruit can satisfy just as much as a 400-calorie piece of chocolate cake. Sorry, brain, but you just got played.

It's hard to believe eating a couple pieces of dark chocolate a day can help burn belly fat, but it's true: Researchers in an August 2012 study found adding the sweet treat into your diet can actually promote body weight reduction. Just be sure to grab something that's at least 70% cacao.

The seeds of the cacao tree have an intense bitter taste and must be fermented to develop the flavor. After fermentation, the seeds are dried, cleaned, and roasted. The shell is removed to produce cocoa nibs, which are then ground to cocoa mass, unadulterated chocolate in rough form. Once the cocoa mass is liquefied by heating, it is called chocolate liquor. The liquor may also be cooled and processed into its two components: cocoa solids and cocoa butter. Baking chocolate, also called bitter chocolate, contains cocoa solids and cocoa butter in varying proportions, without any added sugar. Powdered baking cocoa, which contains more fiber than cocoa butter, can be processed with alkali to produce dutch cocoa. Much of the chocolate consumed today is in the form of sweet chocolate, a combination of cocoa solids, cocoa butter or added vegetable oils, and sugar. Milk chocolate is sweet chocolate that additionally contains milk powder or condensed milk. White chocolate contains cocoa butter, sugar, and milk, but no cocoa solids.

Chocolate is one of the most popular food types and flavors in the world, and many foodstuffs involving chocolate exist, particularly desserts, including cakes, pudding, mousse, chocolate brownies, and chocolate chip cookies. Many candies are filled with or coated with sweetened chocolate. Chocolate bars, either made of solid chocolate or other ingredients coated in chocolate, are eaten as snacks. Gifts of chocolate molded into different shapes (such as eggs, hearts, coins) are traditional on certain Western holidays, including Christmas, Easter, Valentine's Day, and Hanukkah. Chocolate is also used in cold and hot beverages, such as chocolate milk and hot chocolate, and in some alcoholic drinks, such as creme de cacao.

Chocolate has been prepared as a drink for nearly all of its history. For example, one vessel found at an Olmec archaeological site on the Gulf Coast of Veracruz, Mexico, dates chocolate's preparation by pre-Olmec peoples as early as 1750 BC.[6] On the Pacific coast of Chiapas, Mexico, a Mokaya archaeological site provides evidence of cocoa beverages dating even earlier to 1900 BC.[7][6] The residues and the kind of vessel in which they were found indicate the initial use of cocoa was not simply as a beverage, but the white pulp around the cocoa beans was likely used as a source of fermentable sugars for an alcoholic drink.[8]

By the 15th century, the Aztecs had gained control of a large part of Mesoamerica and had adopted cocoa into their culture. They associated chocolate with Quetzalcoatl, who, according to one legend, was cast away by the other gods for sharing chocolate with humans,[13] and identified its extrication from the pod with the removal of the human heart in sacrifice.[14] In contrast to the Maya, who liked their chocolate warm, the Aztecs drank it cold, seasoning it with a broad variety of additives, including the petals of the Cymbopetalum penduliflorum tree, chili pepper, allspice, vanilla, and honey.

The Aztecs were unable to grow cocoa themselves, as their home in the Mexican highlands was unsuitable for it, so chocolate was a luxury imported into the empire.[13] Those who lived in areas ruled by the Aztecs were required to offer cocoa seeds in payment of the tax they deemed "tribute."[13] Cocoa beans were often used as currency.[15] For example, the Aztecs used a system in which one turkey cost 100 cocoa beans[16] and one fresh avocado was worth three beans.[17]

The Maya and Aztecs associated cocoa with human sacrifice, and chocolate drinks specifically with sacrificial human blood.[18][19]The Spanish royal chronicler Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo y Valdés described a chocolate drink he had seen in Nicaragua in 1528, mixed with achiote: "because those people are fond of drinking human blood, to make this beverage seem like blood, they add a little achiote, so that it then turns red. ... and part of that foam is left on the lips and around the mouth, and when it is red for having achiote, it seems a horrific thing, because it seems like blood itself."[19]

Although bananas are more profitable, cocoa is more highly esteemed in Mexico... Cocoa is a smaller fruit than almonds and thicker, which toasted do not taste bad. It is so prized among the Indians and even among Spaniards... because since it is a dried fruit it can be stored for a long time without deterioration, and they brings ships loaded with them from the province of Guatemala... It also serves as currency, because with five cocoas you can buy one thing, with thirty another, and with a hundred something else, without there being contradiction; and they give these cocoas as alms to the poor who beg for them. The principal product of this cocoa is a concoction which they make that they call "chocolate," which is a crazy thing treasured in that land, and those who are not accustomed are disgusted by it, because it has a foam on top and a bubbling like that of feces, which certainly takes a lot to put up with. Anyway, it is the prized beverage which the Indians offer to nobles who come to or pass through their lands; and the Spaniards, especially Spanish women born in those lands die for black chocolate. This aforementioned chocolate is said to be made in various forms and temperaments, hot, cold, and lukewarm. They are wont to use spices and much chili; they also make it into a paste, and it is said that it is a medicine to treat coughs, the stomach, and colds. Whatever may be the case, in fact those who have not been reared on this opinion are not appetized by it.[22]

While Columbus had taken cocoa beans with him back to Spain,[20] chocolate made no impact until Spanish friars introduced it to the Spanish court.[13] After the Spanish conquest of the Aztecs, chocolate was imported to Europe. There, it quickly became a court favorite. It was still served as a beverage, but the Spanish added sugar, as well as honey (the original sweetener used by the Aztecs for chocolate), to counteract the natural bitterness.[16] Vanilla, another indigenous American introduction, was also a popular additive, with pepper and other spices sometimes used to give the illusion of a more potent vanilla flavor. Unfortunately, these spices tended to unsettle the European constitution; the Encyclopédie states, "The pleasant scent and sublime taste it imparts to chocolate have made it highly recommended; but a long experience having shown that it could potentially upset one's stomach," which is why chocolate without vanilla was sometimes referred to as "healthy chocolate."[23] By 1602, chocolate had made its way from Spain to Austria.[24] By 1662, Pope Alexander VII had declared that religious fasts were not broken by consuming chocolate drinks. Within about a hundred years, chocolate established a foothold throughout Europe.[13]


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