Alnus Serrulata BETTER
Alder native to Central IndianaMay 30, 2006I am trying to find out whether there exists a plant named Alnus rugosa. I bought a plant recently that said Speckled Alder, Alnus serrulata (rugosa), but have been unable to determine if this is a c... view the full question and answer
Alnus serrulata, the hazel alder or smooth alder, is a thicket-forming shrub in the family Betulaceae. It is native to eastern North America and can be found from western Nova Scotia and southern New Brunswick south to Florida and Texas.
Alnus serrulata is mainly located in eastern North America. It ranges from Maine to Northern Florida, west to southeastern Oklahoma, Missouri, and Illinois. It also grows along the Mississippi river. It is not present in northern New Hampshire and Vermont. Smooth Alder is classified as an facultative wetland species in the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains and an obligate wetland species in the North and Midwest.
The scientific name of Smooth Alder is Alnus serrulata (Aiton) Willd., synonymous with Alnus noveboracensis Britton, Alnus rubra Desfontaines ex Spach, Alnus rugosa (Du Roi) Sprengel, Alnus rugosa (Du Roi) Sprengel var. serrulata (W. Aiton) H. Winkler, Alnus serrulata (W. Aiton) Willdenow var. subelliptica Fernald, and Betula serrulata W. Aiton. It has English common names including common alder, tag alder, hazel alder, and smooth alder.
Most attractive, Alnus serrulata (Smooth Alder) is a large, spreading deciduous shrub or small tree of pyramidal habit with a densely branched canopy. Its multi-stemmed trunks are covered with shiny gray-brown bark. The foliage of undulating, elliptic to obovate, glossy green leaves, 2-4 in. long (5-10 cm), turns yellow-brown in the fall. In early to mid-spring, long, pendant, pale yellow male catkins, 4 in. long (10 cm), dangle like Christmas decorations near the bare branch tips. The catkins release clouds of pollen that attract bees and other insects. Inconspicuous female flowers in the form of tiny red-purple tassels bloom in clusters at the twig tips. They are followed by small, dark brown, fruiting cones, 1 in. long (2.5 cm), containing winged seeds (nutlets). Resembling miniature pine cones, they persist on the twigs for up to a year for a unique and lovely display - to the delight of birds. Smooth Alder is a suckering plant forming thickets that become an effective choice for erosion control. Adaptable to drier soils as well as flooding, it is a great plant for naturalizing along stream banks, rivers, or pond margins. Smooth Alder fixes nitrogen and thus serves as a nutrient-giving pioneer in reclamation projects. An intermediate source of food for wildlife, Alders support 255 species of caterpillars as well as many sawfly larvae. This allows a grove of Alder to provide food and shelter for wintering birds, breeding birds, and migrant birds.
Alnus serrulata, the hazel alder or smooth alder, is a thicket-forming shrub in the family Betulaceae. It is native to eastern North America and can be found found from western Nova Scotia and southern New Brunswick south to Florida and Texas.
Alnus serrulata is a large shrub or small tree that may grow up to 2.5-4 m (8-12 ft) high and 15 cm (6 in) in diameter. The scientific name originates from alnus which is an old name for alder; serrulata points to the finely-toothed leaf margins which it possesses. It takes about 10 yrs to mature. The plant prefers moist soil near streams, pond margins, and riversides. It usually has multiple stems from its base and reddish-green flowers. The broad, flat, dark green leaves are about 2 to 4 inches long.
Smooth Alder, a generous grower and a beauty, loves to form thickets in moist to wet soils. Male catkins and female flowers are among the first to bloom in spring. Female flowers form cones bearing seeds to feed birds. An excellent wildlife supporter, Alnus serrulata can host 232 species of butterflies and moths in our area.
Tag Alder (Alnus serrulata) is a small tree or large shrub to 10 meters, but usually half that size, with a narrow, rounded crown; trunk crooked, often spindly, to 10 cm in diameter, usually with multiple trunks. The bark is smooth and very similar to Hornbeam (Carpinus caroliniana). Leaves are alternate, deciduous, 5-10 cm long, 3-6 cm wide, oval, narrowly cuneate base, finely toothed along the margin. Flowers are both in catkins, the male very long and drooping, the female in short, rounded clusters of from 3-6, that develop into small cones, composed of numerous scales that are thickened at their tips, each scale enclosing a tiny winged seed. The species name serrulata means small-toothed, referring to leaf margins.
Botanic Garden visitors have many opportunities to enjoy the remarkable native shrub known as brookside alder, Alnus serrulata. This species thrives in soggy soils where most plants are hard pressed to find enough usable nitrogen for vigorous growth. Brookside alders typically have healthy, dark green leaves, while other nearby plants may look wan and yellow.
Alder, aulne, aune [Latin alnus, alder] Trees or shrubs , to 35 m; trunks usually several, branching excurrent to deliquescent. Bark of trunks and branches light gray to dark brown, thin, smooth, close; lenticels often present, pale, prominent, sometimes horizontally expanded. Wood nearly white, turning reddish upon exposure to air, moderately light and soft, texture fine. Branches, branchlets, and twigs nearly 2-ranked to diffuse; young twigs uniform or ( Alnus subg. Alnobetula ) differentiated into long and short shoots. Winter buds stipitate (nearly sessile in Alnus subg. Alnobetula ), narrowly to broadly ovoid or ellipsoid, terete, apex acute to rounded; scales 2--3, valvate, or ( Alnus subg. Alnobetula ) several, imbricate, smooth, or ( Alnus subg. Clethropsis ) sometimes none. Leaves borne on long or short shoots, 3-ranked to nearly 2-ranked. Leaf blade ovate to elliptic or obovate, thin to leathery, base variable, cuneate to rounded, margins doubly serrate, serrate, serrulate, or nearly entire, apex variable, acute to obtuse or acuminate to rounded; surfaces glabrous to tomentose, abaxially sometimes resinous-glandular. Inflorescences: staminate catkins lateral, in racemose clusters or ( Alnus subg. Clethropsis ) solitary, formed ( Alnus subg. Alnus and Clethropsis ) during previous growing season and exposed or enclosed in buds during winter, or ( Alnus subg. Clethropsis ) formed and expanding during same growing season, expanding before or with leaves; pistillate catkins proximal to staminate catkins, solitary or in relatively small racemose clusters, erect to nearly pendulous, ovoid to ellipsoid, firm; scales and flowers crowded, developing and maturing at same time as staminate catkins. Staminate flowers in catkins, 3 per scale; stamens (3--)4(--6); anthers and filaments undivided. Pistillate flowers usually 2 per scale. Infructescences erect or pendulous; scales persistent long after release of fruits, with 5 lobes, greatly thickened, woody. Fruits tiny samaras, lateral wings 2, leathery or membranaceous, reduced or essentially absent in some species. x = 7.Species ca. 25 (8 species in the flora): forested temperate and boreal Northern Hemisphere; North America; Asia.Alders resemble birches but are easily distinguished from them by the infructescences, which consist of persistent, 5-lobed, woody scales (versus deciduous, 3-lobed, thin scales). Except in members of Alnus subg. Alnobetula Petermann (which have nearly sessile buds with several imbricate scales), alders are also distinctive in their stipitate buds bearing two stipular scales. The fruits, borne two to a scale, are laterally winged, although the wings are sometimes reduced or absent.The genus is diverse, including several very distinct lines of specialization. The shrubby or arborescent Alnus subg. Alnus is characterized by winter buds with long stalks and two valvate scales, inflorescences borne in racemose clusters, and development of both pistillate and staminate inflorescences during the growing season prior to anthesis, with these fully exposed during winter. It includes the common A . rubra , A . incana , A . oblongifolia , and A . serrulata . Alnus subg. Alnobetula (represented in North America by three subspecies of A . viridis ) consists of shrubby species of cold-climate regions. In this group, the buds are nearly sessile and covered by several imbricate scales. Both staminate and pistillate catkins are formed the season before anthesis, but only the staminate ones are exposed during winter. The predominantly Asian Alnus subg. Clethropsis (Spach) Regel is represented in America by a single species, A . maritima , a small tree or large shrub of stream banks, marshes, and the shores of shallow lakes. Members of this group are unique in that they bloom in autumn rather than spring. They also differ from other native species in Alnus in having essentially naked buds, leaves with semicraspedodromous venation (i.e., with the secondary veins branching and anastomosing with each other near the margin before reaching the teeth), and solitary pistillate inflorescences borne in the axils of foliage leaves. All of the alders associate symbiotically with species of the actinomycete Frankia , leading to the formation of nodules on the roots of the plants and the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen.SELECTED REFERENCES Furlow, J. J. 1979. The systematics of the American species of Alnus (Betulaceae). Rhodora 81: 1--121, 151--248. Hylander, N. 1957. On cut-leaved and small-leaved forms of Alnus glutinosa and A. incana. Svensk Bot. Tidskr. 51: 437--453. Murai, S. 1964. Phytotaxonomical and geobotanical studies on gen. Alnus in Japan (III). Taxonomy of whole world species and distribution of each sect. Bull. Gov. Forest Exp. Sta. 171: 1--107. Trappe, J. M., J. F. Franklin, R. F. Tarrant, and G. M. Hansen, eds. 1968. Biology of Alder.... Portland. 041b061a72