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Bicarbonate Of Soda

Bicarbonate of soda, or baking soda, is an alkali which is used to raise soda breads and full-flavoured cakes such as gingerbread, fruit cake, chocolate cake and carrot cake. It needs an acid (as well as moisture) to activate it so is often combined with cream of tartar, yogurt, buttermilk or milk.

bicarbonate of soda

Because it has long been known and widely used, the salt has many different names such as baking soda, bread soda, cooking soda, and bicarbonate of soda and can often be found near baking powder in stores. The term baking soda is more common in the United States, while bicarbonate of soda is more common in Australia, United Kingdom and Ireland.[11] Abbreviated colloquial forms such as sodium bicarb, bicarb soda, bicarbonate, and bicarb are common.[12]

The prefix bi in bicarbonate comes from an outdated naming system predating molecular knowledge in reference to the two molar equivalents of carbon dioxide (known as carbonic acid in the ancient chemistry language) that potassium hydrocarbonate/bicarbonate releases upon decomposition to (di)potassium carbonate and to potassium oxide (potash).[15] The modern chemical formulas of these compounds now express their precise chemical compositions which were unknown when the name bi-carbonate of potash was coined (see also: bicarbonate).

Acidic materials that induce this reaction include hydrogen phosphates, cream of tartar, lemon juice, yogurt, buttermilk, cocoa, and vinegar. Baking soda may be used together with sourdough, which is acidic, making a lighter product with a less acidic taste.[17]

When used this way on its own, without the presence of an acidic component (whether in the batter or by the use of a baking powder containing acid), only half the available CO2 is released (one CO2 molecule is formed for every two equivalents of NaHCO3). Additionally, in the absence of acid, thermal decomposition of sodium bicarbonate also produces sodium carbonate, which is strongly alkaline and gives the baked product a bitter, "soapy" taste and a yellow color. Since the reaction occurs slowly at room temperature, mixtures (cake batter, etc.) can be allowed to stand without rising until they are heated in the oven.[citation needed]

Baking powder, also sold for cooking, contains around 30% of bicarbonate, and various acidic ingredients which are activated by the addition of water, without the need for additional acids in the cooking medium.[19][20][21] Many forms of baking powder contain sodium bicarbonate combined with calcium acid phosphate, sodium aluminium phosphate, or cream of tartar.[22] Baking soda is alkaline; the acid used in baking powder avoids a metallic taste when the chemical change during baking creates sodium carbonate.[23]

Sodium bicarbonate is one of the main components of the common "black snake" firework. The effect is caused by the thermal decomposition, which produces carbon dioxide gas to produce a long snake-like ash as a combustion product of the other main component, sucrose.[24] Sodium bicarbonate is also used to delay combustion reactions by releasing CO2 and H2O when heated, both of which are flame retardants.

Sodium bicarbonate can be used to extinguish small grease or electrical fires by being thrown over the fire, as heating of sodium bicarbonate releases carbon dioxide.[29] However, it should not be applied to fires in deep fryers; the sudden release of gas may cause the grease to splatter.[29] Sodium bicarbonate is used in BC dry chemical fire extinguishers as an alternative to the more corrosive monoammonium phosphate in ABC extinguishers. The alkaline nature of sodium bicarbonate makes it the only dry chemical agent, besides Purple-K, that was used in large-scale fire suppression systems installed in commercial kitchens. Because it can act as an alkali, the agent has a mild saponification effect on hot grease, which forms a smothering, soapy foam.[citation needed]

Sodium bicarbonate reacts spontaneously with acids, releasing CO2 gas as a reaction product. It is commonly used to neutralize unwanted acid solutions or acid spills in chemical laboratories.[30] It is not appropriate to use sodium bicarbonate to neutralize base[31] even though it is amphoteric, reacting with both acids and bases.[citation needed]

Sodium bicarbonate when applied on leaves, can prevent the growth of fungi; however, it does not kill the fungus. Excessive amount of sodium bicarbonate can cause discolouration of fruits (two percent solution) and chlorosis (one percent solution).[33]

A mixture of sodium bicarbonate and polyethylene glycol such as PegLyte,[35] dissolved in water and taken orally, is an effective gastrointestinal lavage preparation and laxative prior to gastrointestinal surgery, gastroscopy, etc.[citation needed]

Intravenous sodium bicarbonate in an aqueous solution is sometimes used for cases of acidosis, or when insufficient sodium or bicarbonate ions are in the blood.[36] In cases of respiratory acidosis, the infused bicarbonate ion drives the carbonic acid/bicarbonate buffer of plasma to the left, and thus raises the pH. For this reason, sodium bicarbonate is used in medically supervised cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Infusion of bicarbonate is indicated only when the blood pH is markedly low (

Some alternative practitioners, such as Tullio Simoncini, have promoted baking soda as a cancer cure, which the American Cancer Society has warned against due to both its unproven effectiveness and potential danger in use.[42] Edzard Ernst has called the promotion of sodium bicarbonate as a cancer cure "one of the more sickening alternative cancer scams I have seen for a long time".[43]

Sodium bicarbonate can be added to local anesthetics, to speed up the onset of their effects and make their injection less painful.[44] It is also a component of Moffett's solution, used in nasal surgery.[citation needed]

Sodium bicarbonate is also used as an ingredient in some mouthwashes. It has anticaries and abrasive properties.[50] It works as a mechanical cleanser on the teeth and gums, neutralizes the production of acid in the mouth, and also acts as an antiseptic to help prevent infections.[51][52] Sodium bicarbonate in combination with other ingredients can be used to make a dry or wet deodorant.[53][54] Sodium bicarbonate may be used as a buffering agent, combined with table salt, when creating a solution for nasal irrigation.[55]

It is used in eye hygiene to treat blepharitis. This is done by addition of a teaspoon of sodium bicarbonate to cool water that was recently boiled, followed by gentle scrubbing of the eyelash base with a cotton swab dipped in the solution.[56][57]

Sodium bicarbonate is used in a process for removing paint and corrosion called sodablasting. As a blasting medium, sodium bicarbonate is used to remove surface contamination from softer and less resilient substrates such as aluminium, copper or timber which could be damaged by silica sand abrasive media.[59]

A manufacturer recommends a paste made from baking soda with minimal water as a gentle scouring powder,[29] and is useful in removing surface rust, as the rust forms a water-soluble compound when in a concentrated alkaline solution;[60] cold water should be used, as hot-water solutions can corrode steel.[61] Sodium bicarbonate attacks the thin protective oxide layer that forms on aluminium, making it unsuitable for cleaning this metal.[62] A solution in warm water will remove the tarnish from silver when the silver is in contact with a piece of aluminium foil.[62][63] Baking soda is commonly added to washing machines as a replacement for water softener and to remove odors from clothes. It is also almost as effective in removing heavy tea and coffee stains from cups as sodium hydroxide, when diluted with warm water.

During the Manhattan Project to develop the nuclear bomb in the early 1940s, the chemical toxicity of uranium was an issue. Uranium oxides were found to stick very well to cotton cloth, and did not wash out with soap or laundry detergent. However, the uranium would wash out with a 2% solution of sodium bicarbonate. Clothing can become contaminated with toxic dust of depleted uranium (DU), which is very dense, hence used for counterweights in a civilian context, and in armour-piercing projectiles. DU is not removed by normal laundering; washing with about 6 ounces (170 g) of baking soda in 2 gallons (7.5 L) of water will help to wash it out.[64]

It is often claimed that baking soda is an effective odor remover,[65][better source needed] and it is often recommended that an open box be kept in the refrigerator to absorb odor.[66] This idea was promoted by the leading U.S. brand of baking soda, Arm & Hammer, in an advertising campaign starting in 1972.[67] Though this campaign is considered a classic of marketing, leading within a year to more than half of American refrigerators containing a box of baking soda,[68][69] there is little evidence that it is in fact effective in this application.[70][71]

Sodium bicarbonate can be used as a catalyst in gas production. Its performance for this application is "good", however not usually used.[citation needed] Hydrogen gas is produced via electrolysis of water, process in which electric current is applied through a volume of water, which causes the hydrogen atoms to separate from the oxygen atoms. This demonstration is usually done in high school chemistry classes to show electrolysis.

Sodium bicarbonate can often be used as a safer alternative to sodium hydroxide, and as such can be used as a wash to remove any acidic impurities from a "crude" liquid, producing a purer sample. Reaction of sodium bicarbonate and an acid produces a salt and carbonic acid, which readily decomposes to carbon dioxide and water:

If kept cool (room temperature) and dry (an airtight container is recommended to keep out moist air), sodium bicarbonate can be kept without a significant amount of decomposition for at least two or three years.[73][74][75][76] 041b061a72


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